Home | About us | Contribute | Contact us | Terms of Service | Blog | Bookmark This Site!
..Language Menu:
..Chinese
..Dutch
....- Pronunciation
....- Phrase Guide
....- Grammar
......>> Articles
......>> Plural
......>> Pronouns
......>> To be & to have
......>> Present tense
......>> Past tense
......>> Present & past perfect
......>> Future tense
......>> Irregular verbs
......>> The imperative
......>> Adjectives
......>> Telling time & date
....- Streaming Media
....- Links
..French
..German
..Italian
..Japanese
..Portuguese
..Spanish

Dutch: Grammar > Present & past perfect

Knowing some of the Dutch grammar will help you understand how the language is build up, and it will also help you to understand the basic phrases better. The Dutch grammar guide presented at LanguageTrav.com should in no way be considered as complete, and if you would like to acquire an in-depth understanding we recomment you to purchase books or DVDs for further learning.

The good news is that especially when you are traveling to The Netherlands, virtually everyone will speak English as a second language. However, it is a polite gesture to ask first.

The present perfect is constructed in Dutch by combining the present tense of to be or to have with the past participle of a verb.

The past participle:

  • If the stem ends in -k, -f, -s, -ch, or -p, the past participle is formed by the formula ge + stem + t
  • If the stem ends in another consonant or a vowel, the past participle is formed by the formula ge + stem + d.
  • If the stem ends in -t, then nothing is placed after the stem.

    For example:

  • maken - gemaakt.
  • koken - gekookt.
  • gooien - gegooid.
  • When the verb, however, begins with ver-, then ge- is not attached at the front of the verb. Furthermore, in case of a composed verb, ge- is placed between the prefix and the stem. Such composed verbs commonly start with in-, uit-, op-, onder-, van-, vandaan-, heen-, aan-, and others. For example:

  • vergooien - vergooid.
  • uitstappen (composed verb: uit+stappen) - uitgestapt.
  • The present perfect:

    The present perfect is constructed using the present time of zijn or hebben + past participle. The verb zijn is usually used when an action is expressed, which refers to how an action has been completed or which focuses on the subject of the sentence (i.e. I, you, he). In English this is best translated as have + been + past participle. The verb hebben is usually used when the focus is put on the action itself and/or its result(s). In English this is best translated as have + past participle. For example:

    Dutch English Dutch English
    Ik heb gelopen. I have walked. Ik ben gelopen. I have walked (taking a special route, in a certain way).
    Ik heb kapot gemaakt. I have broken (someone / something). Ik ben kapotgemaakt. I have been broken (by someone / something).
    Ik heb opgepakt. I have picked up. Ik ben opgepakt. I have been picked up (usually used to express "have been arrested").

    The past perfect:

    The past perfect is constructed by the formula past tense of "zijn" or "hebben" + past participle. The rules as to whether to use zijn or hebben are explained in the section above. For example:

    Dutch English Dutch English
    Ik had gelopen. Ik had walked. Ik was gelopen. I had walked (taking a special route, in a certain way).
    Ik had kapot gemaakt. I had broken (someone / something). Ik was kapotgemaakt. I had been broken (by someone / something).
    Ik had opgepakt. Ik had picked up. Ik was opgepakt. Ik had been picked up (usually used to express "have been arrested").

    << Past tense Future tense >>

    Google
     
    Web www.languagetrav.com

    [Home] [About us] [Contact us] [Terms of Service]

    Copyright © Languagetrav 2006

    Visit our partner site: Urban Lifestyle Blog